God, I love this question.
The answer is, kind of. Yes. A bit.
A pure tone, that beeeeeeeeeeeeep of, let’s say middle C is a sine wave with a frequency (pitch) of about 261 Hertz. That means 261 waves pass a point (like go into your ear) every second. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch I like how they look, they’re so simplistic, but so mathematically powerful.
The notes of all instruments are based on sine waves. When a violin and piano both play middle C, the C sine wave is there, but so are other little quiet bits of other frequencies, these are called overtones and they’re different for each instrument. These change the waveform of the instrument and say why a C on a piano is different to a C on a guitar. That’s called the timbre of an instrument.
What are beautiful though, are harmonies.
Harmonies are when two notes have frequencies that are simple fractions, if one is twice as high as the other (2/1) it’s an octave. If the ratio is 3/2 it’s a perfect fifth. There’s a little more to it than that, but my musical knowledge doesn’t extend much further than playing Doctor Who on the ukulele.
Harmonies look really pretty, see:
See the way some of the bits that don’t move (the nodes) arrive at the same place at the same time. There’s a theory that our brains like that, that the two notes trigger neurons at the same time, so that’s why we like it.